■ The most innovative country in the world is South Korea … 11th in the United States, Japan?Archaeological sites have been excavated to answer these questions. A large public toilet about 150 years ago was confirmed on the east side of Gyeongbokgung Palace. The National Institute of Cultural Properties, Cultural Heritage Administration, said, “We have confirmed the remains of the toilet in the area south of the eastern palace (living space of King Seiko) being excavated at Gyeongbokgung Palace,” and opened the site on the 8th. This is the first time a toilet has been confirmed in a palace during the Joseon Dynasty, but it even had a unique purification facility. The ruins of the toilet I saw at the site were stone grooves reminiscent of a part of a masonry wall. It has an elongated shape of 10.4 meters in length, 1.4 meters in width and 1.8 meters in depth, and its bottom and walls are made of stone, and soil is packed between the stones to prevent excrement from leaking out.